General advice

  • Avoid large meals, preferring small and frequent meals (4-5 per day).
  • Do not have meals and snacks in 2-3 hours before bedtime.
  • Avoid the intake of large amounts of liquids during meals, but sip them slowly throughout the day.
  • Eat slowly and chew well your food.
  • Avoid wearing very tight clothing or belt.
  • If you suffer from night-time reflux is advisable to slightly raise the headboard of the bed and avoid snacks before bedtime.
  • Avoid exercise immediately after food.
  • In case of overweight or obesity, it is advisable to gradually reduce weight and waist circumference through a balanced diet, associated with regular exercise.

 

Carbohydrates

Food allowed Food not allowed/ to reduce Tips/other info
-White or brown bread, sourdough bread, English muffin, bagels, pitta bread, plain naan bread, plain chapatti, white or wholegrain flour.

-Breakfast cereals such as: Corn Flakes, Rice Krispies, Special K, rice porridge, All- Bran, Weetabix, muesli, oat porridge.

-White rice, basmati or jasmine rice, pasta and noodles, sweet potatoes and potatoes, plain crackers or breadstick, cous cous, semolina, polenta, quinoa, buckwheat, wholegrain rice and noodles.

-Some patients may have problems with the wholegrains products, corn or bakery products containing dried fruit or nuts, so please try to use them in moderation or avoid them if they are triggering any symptoms.

 

Vegetables

Food allowed Food not allowed/ to reduce Tips/other info
-Cooked or raw vegetables. -Tomato and tomato based products, spring onion, onion, garlic, chili, curry, pepper and mint.

– Vegetables with fatty sauces, cream, cheese, bacon or lard.

-Pickled or fermented  vegetables like kimchi or sourkrauts and others prepared in oil or brine.

-Small amount of those foods can be tolerated, but generally they need to be avoided because they increase the acid production.

-Mint and spices reduce the tone of the lower esophageal sphincter increasing the gastric reflux.

-Sometimes raw vegetables, can be difficult to be digested, so please try to alternate them with the cooked one.

Fruits

Food allowed Food not allowed/ to reduce Tips/other info
-Cooked or raw fruit. -Citrus and citrus juices. -Sometimes raw fruit or dried fruit, nuts or seeds can be difficult to be digested, so please try to use them in moderation if they are triggering any symptoms. Alternatively you can use cooked fruit and use smooth peanut butter, nuts butter or seeds butter instead.

 

Milk and dairy products

Food allowed Food not allowed/ to reduce Tips/other info
-Pasteurized milk, cheese, yoghurt and Greek yogurt.

-Vegetable alternatives like almond, oat and rice milk.

-Coconut milk. -Sometimes full fat milk and dairy are not well tolerated. In case they are triggering any symptoms, please choose low fat alternatives.

 

Meat and alternatives

Food allowed Food not allowed/ to reduce Tips/other info
-All meats, poultry (choose leaner cuts like sirloin, round and loin), fish, eggs and legumes (beans, lentils, chickpeas, peas, etc..). -Tough meats with fat and smoked or cured deli meats, stews, goulash, boiled meat, ragout. Skin of the chicken, fatty meat, processed meat or fish (like meat balls, salami, fish balls, etc..). Organs, kidney, brain and liver. – Cook the meats without adding sauces or other fatty gravies.

– Remove all the visible fat before cooking, especially the skin of the chicken and fish.

-Sometimes legumes can give bloating and gas, if so, please reduce their consumption or soak them for long time before cooking.

 

Snack, Sweets, Condiments and Beverages

Food allowed Food not allowed/ to reduce Tips/other info
-Water (1,5-2 liters/day), including herbal tea, light barley coffee, chamomile, fresh vegetables/fruit juices, coconut water.

-Salt, herbs (like oregano, sage, thyme, basil leaves, rosemary, coriander, etc..), ginger.

-Oils (olive oil, avocado oil are good options).

-Alcohol, carbonated beverages, soft drinks, coffee, black tea, citrus juices.

-Chocolate, chewing gum, candy sweets in general, fatty food like: fried food, coconut milk or cream, sauces, sauces with cream, oily foods, margarine, butter, lard, desserts with creams, broth high in fat.

-Chewing gum and candy can worsen the symptoms because the sucrose contained, fermenting, increases the production of air in the stomach, and prolonged chewing stimulate the production of acids.

-Fats, heavy condiments and sauces need to be avoid because they can slowing down gastric emptying, increasing the symptoms.

– Use low fat cooking methods like boil, bake, grill, steam and stir-fry (max few times per week).

-Usually Chamomile, Melissa and Valerian herb tea can help in reducing the discomfort.

 

How does my plate look like?

Portion size

Half plate of vegetables

  • Take 1 portion of vegetables in every main meal.
  • Take 1 portion of fruit for breakfast, as a snack during middle morning and/or afternoon. Prefer the whole fruit instead of fruit juices.

A quarter plate of grains

  • Depending on your age and gender, take 4-6 portions a day.

 

A quarter plate of protein (to use 3 times a day) to choose among:

Eggs

 

  • Use not more than 2-3 egg yolks per week. If you want to exceed the consumption, you can take egg white.
  • Portion size: 2 eggs or 1 egg + 1 white.

 

Poultry and meat

  • Limit red meat like beef, pork, mutton, duck to 1-3 times a week. Prefer chicken and turkey.

 

Fish and seafood

  • Consume fish 3-4 times per week.

Dairy Products

  • Use 1-2 portions of milk or yogurt per day (preferably during breakfast or snacks).
  • Use 1-3 portions of cheese per week. For the hard cheese you have the portion above, for the soft cheese or low fat cheese you can double the portion.

 

Legumes

  • You can choose 2-3 times a week lentils, chickpeas, peas or beans or other legumes.
  • Please reduce to few times per week the consumption of soya beans and soya products like tofu, edamame, soya milk, tempeh, etc..

Healthy fat

  • Use one portion of nuts or nuts spread during breakfast or as a snack.
  • Use 3-4 tablespoons of good oils per day.

Source pictures: www.healthhub.sg; www.eatrightontario.ca