GUIDELINE

The soaking of legumes, dried fruits, seeds, quinoa and amahrant is necessary to reduce the fermentation process in the intestine and remove all the substances (phytic acid and saponins) that inhibit the absorption of certain minerals.

HOW TO DO THE SOAKING

Legumes à overnight soaking (12-24-48 h) using warm water (1 cup per 5 g dried legumes) and 1tsp of lemon juice or apple vinegar. If possible, change the water during the soaking process using a new one. Remember, do not use the soaking water to boil the legumes, use a new one.

Chickpeas: 12-48 hours

Beans: 12-24 hours

Azuki beans: 12 hours

Lentils: 2 hours

Peeled lentil/red lentils: no soaking, just rinse under running water

Peas: 2 hours

Quinoa and amahrant à the ideal soaking is for 8-12 hours, after that rinse well under running water: you will notice a foam, which is caused by the elimination of saponins.

Seeds and nuts à Soak for 12 hours in a quantity of water equal to twice the amount needed to cover them. Add 1 tablespoon of whole salt for the seeds and 2 tablespoons for the nuts. After soaking, rinse and eat them immediately (they will have a tender texture) or they can be dried at a low temperature so you can stored them longer (those damp after a few days make molds).

Dry in a dryer for 12-24 hours. A normal oven will destroy them reducing their nutritional content. Nuts and backed seeds should be avoided because high temperatures can cause fatty oxidation, leading the formation of peroxides and hydroperoxides.

(do not use this method for chia or flax seeds)

BOILING TIME and METHODS

All legumes and cereals must be rinsed 3 times under running water, then put them in a new cold water in a pot.

Bring to a boil on a lively fire. As soon as it starts to boil, lower the flame to a minimum, so the water is just shaken.

To increase digestibility and reduce digestive disorders, add ½ onion, one carrot and one celery stalk to the cooking water to enhance also the flavor and smell of boiled vegetables.

Complete the cooking with the covered pot. At the end of boiling time in the pot there will be very little amount of water, this one will be reabsorbed in the final five minutes of resting.

You can also boil in water and at the end of the cooking you can remove the remaining water.

Chickpeas: 2 hours

Beans: 1,5 hours

Azuki beans: 1 hour

Lentils: 40 min

Peeled lentils: 20 min

Peas: 45 min

REFERENCE

– Schlemmer U et al. Phytate in foods and significance for humans: food sources, intake, processing, bioavailability, protective role and analysis. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2009 Sep;53 Suppl 2:S330-75.
– H. Walter Lopez et al. Minerals and phytic acid interactions: is it a real problem for human nutrition? International Journal of Food Science & Technology Volume 37, Issue 7, pages 727–739, October 2002
– Sandberg and Andersson. The effect of dietary phytase on the digestion of phytate in the stomach and small intestine of human. Journal of Nutrition n. 118 (1988), pag. 469-473.
– López-González et al. Phytate (myo-inositol hexaphosphate) and risk factors for osteoporosis. Journal of Medicinal Food December 2008
– Sandberg and Andlid. Phytogenic and microbial phytases in human nutrition. International Journal of Food Science and Technology n. 37 (2002), pag. 823-833.
– Luo Y et al. Effect of several germination treatments on phosphatases activities and degradation of phytate in faba bean (Vicia faba L.) and azuki bean (Vigna angularis L.). J Food Sci. 2012 Oct;77(10):C1023-9.